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NavSource Online: Submarine Photo Archive

Skate / F-4 (SS-23)


F Class Submarine: Laid down, as Skate, 21 August 1909, at Seattle Construction & Drydock Co., Seattle, WA.; Renamed F-4, 17 November 1911; Launched, 6 January 1912; Commissioned USS F-4, 3 May 1913; Sunk by mechanical failure, foundered of Honolulu, HI, 25 March 1915; Raised, 29 August 1915; Struck from the Naval Register, 31 August 1915; Final Disposition, in 1940 the remains of F-4 (SS-23) were buried as fill in a trench off the Submarine Base, Pearl Harbor.

Specifications: Displacement, surfaced 330 t., submerged 400 t.; Length 142' 7"; Beam 15' 5"; Draft 12' 2"; Speed, surfaced 13.5 kts, submerged 11.5 kts; Depth Limit 200'; Complement 1 Officer 21 Enlisted; Armament, four 18" torpedo tubes, four torpedoes; Propulsion, diesel electric, Craig Shipbuilding Co., engines, 800 hp, Fuel Capacity 11,500 gal., Electro Dynamic Co. motors, 620 hp, Battery Cells 120, twin propellers.
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F-1-4210k U.S. submarines (SS-20) through (SS-23). General plans prepared by the Fore River Shipbuilding Company, Quincy, Massachusetts, 18 June 1910. This sheet features inboard and outboard profile drawings. These submarines were constructed by the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, California. Initially named Carp (SS-20), Barracuda (SS-21), Pickerel (SS-22) and Skate (SS-23), they were renamed F-1 (SS-20) through F-4 (SS-23) in November 1911, while under construction. The original plan is in Record Group 19 at the U.S. National Archives. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph # NH 84383. Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1976.
F-1-4201k U.S. Submarines (SS-20) through (SS-23). General plans prepared by the Fore River Shipbuilding Company, Quincy, Massachusetts, 18 June 1910. This sheet features a table of dimensions, deck plans and hull section drawings. These submarines were constructed by the Union Iron Works, San Francisco, California. Initially named Carp (SS-20), Barracuda (SS-21), Pickerel (SS-22) and Skate (SS-23), they were renamed F-1 (SS-20) through F-4 (SS-23) in November 1911, while under construction. The original plan is in Record Group 19 at the U.S. National Archives. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph # NH 84382. Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1976.
F class24kIn the F class (SS-20 - 23) the conning tower is shown in dashed vertical lines between the two periscopes. This class & the E class (SS-24 - 25) introduced bow planes into Electric Boat practice.Drawing by Jim Christley. Photo & text courtesy of U.S. Submarines Through 1945, An Illustrated Design History by Norman Friedman. Naval Institute Press.
F-3 409k First Submarine Launch in the Northwest, the F-3 (SS-22), 6 January 1912. In spite of the austere dress, a national ensign and union jack only, the launch of F-3 (SS-22) & F-4 (SS-23) that cold day occasioned enthusiastic celebration along the entire waterfront. Photo courtesy of Seattle Post Intelligencer. 7 January 1912, from the Beneath the Surface: World War I Submarines Built in Seattle and Vancouver by Bill Lightfoot.
F-3 994k F class (SS-20 - 23) submarines and their tender are in DD#2 at Mare Island on 21 January 1913. Left to right: F-3 (SS-22), F-2 (SS-21), F-1 (SS-20) and Alert (AS-4) in the background. US Navy photo / MINSY # 01211913-01 courtesy of Darryl L. Baker.
F-4 78k F-4 (SS-23), photographed in 1913-15. US Navy photo # NH 74736, from the collections of the US Naval Historical Center. Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1972.
F-4 81k F-4 (SS-23), at Honolulu in 1914 along with (from front to back): F-2 (SS-21), F-3 (SS-22) and F-1 (SS-20). The US Army Transport Dix is in the background. Note the "fish" flags and 13-star "boat" ensigns flown by these submarines. Photographed by Noggle. US Navy photo # NH 63259, from the collections of the US Naval Historical Center.
F-3 124k Tender Alert (AS-4) at Long Beach CA., circa 1914 with several subs alongside. The one next to the Alert is not identifiable, the F-3 (SS-22) second inboard, third boat can't be identified due to flag & F-4 (SS-23) is outboard. Photo courtesy of Vernon P. Maxson, Jr. LCDR,USNR-R-RETIRED (SS) (former crew member, PARGO-SS-264) & Ric Hedman.
F-4 478k F-4 (SS-23) on West Point Spit. Most Seattle to Port Townsend traffic avoids West Point. F-4 did not, but no damage was done (except to egos)? The light keeper provided a wooden ladder to facilitate communication.Photo courtesy of Seattle Post Intelligencer. 14 March 1913, from Beneath the Surface: World War I Submarines Built in Seattle and Vancouver by Bill Lightfoot.
F-4 408k F-4 (SS-23) on Port Townsend Bay. The canvass dodger has been rigged on the collapsible bridge for these surface trials. The submarine bell rides proudly on the fore deck indicating that F-4 has not yet engaged Quincy Wharf. Photo courtesy of Pacific Marine Review July 1913, from Beneath the Surface: World War I Submarines Built in Seattle and Vancouver by Bill Lightfoot.
F-4 84k F-4 (SS-23) at left at anchor in Honolulu, HI. with F-1 (SS-20), center, and F-2 (SS-21) outboard, moored together. Date unknown. Courtesy of MMCM (SS) Greg Peterman USN Retired. Text i.d. from "The Romance of A Submarine" by G. Gibbard Jackson & submitted by Robert Hurst.
F-4 296k Four photo postcards showing scenes of the US Navy sailors along with their deep sea diver(s) searching for lost submarine F-4 (SS-23) off the coast of Honolulu, Hawaii on 25 March 1915.Photo & text courtesy of Tommy Trampp.
PDF added 02/17/14.
F-4 1.03k HUMAN INGENUITY IS TAXED TO GET SAFE SUBMARINE
F-4 STILL LOST; SEARCH KEPT UP AND HOPES FOR 21 MEN ARE HIGHER
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI.
Photo & text by Honolulu Star-Bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, 26 March 1915, 2:30 Edition, Images 1 & 2, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 854k SEARCHERS HAVE HIGH HOPES F-4 (SS-23) IS LOCATED; WILL TRY TO RAISE IT.
THE SUBMARINE F-4 PHOTOGRAPHED IN HARBOR
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI.
Photo & text by Honolulu Star-Bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, 26 March 1915, 3:30 Edition, Image 1, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 923k F-4 (SS-23) AGAIN GOES TO BOTTOM; HOPE FOR TRAPPED 26 GONE Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Photo & text by The Washington Herald. (Washington, D.C.) 1906-1939, 28 March 1915, Image 1, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 2.63k Slow Death In Sunken Submarine F-4 (SS-23). Image and text provided by Washington State Library; Olympia, WA.
Photo & text by The Tacoma Times. (Tacoma, Wash.) 1903-1949, 29 March 1915, Image 7, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 663k DRAWING LOST SUBMARINE TO LAND
WRECK IS DRAGGED ALONG IN WATER 60 FATHOMS DEEP
Image and text provided by University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR.
Photo & text by Medford Mail Tribune. (Medford, Or.) 1909-1989, 30 March 1915, SECOND EDITION, Image 1, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 708k AMERICAN SUBMARINE F-4 (SS-23) SINKS OFF HONOLULU; CARRIED CREW OF 25.
Great disappointment was felt here when the announcement was made that the searchers for the missing submarine F-4 had thus far failed to locate her in spite of previous statements she had been found and partly raised. The truth of the situation was revealed by Diver Agraz of the submarine service, who went down 215 feet only to find that the dredging hook was fast to a discarded anchor and not to the lost boat, as had been believed for two hours.
Image provided by: Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, OH.
Photo & text by The Democratic Banner. (Mt. Vernon, Ohio) 1898-192?, 30 March 1915, Image 1, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 587k HEAVY HAWSERS NEEDED TO DRAG SUBMARINE INTO SHALLOWER WATER
The F-4 (SS-23) as she appeared while under way in a trial run.
Image and text provided by University of Oregon, Knight Library; Eugene, OR.
Photo & text by Medford Mail Tribune.(Medford, Or.) 1909-1989, 31 March 1915, SECOND EDITION, Image 1, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 993k NEW YORK DIVERS TO SEEK THE F-4 (SS-23)
Sent to Honolulu from Brooklyn - Trial of Bell Successful
Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Photo & text by New-York Tribune.(New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, 1 April 1915, Image 16, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 614k Views of American Submarine F-4 (SS-23) Sunk Recently at Honolulu. Image and text provided by University of Oregon, Knight Library; Eugene, OR.
Photo & text by The Evening Herald. (Klamath Falls, Or.) 1906-1942, 02 April 1915, Image 1, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 478k American Submarine Lost at Honululu Image and text provided by University of Oregon Libraries; Eugene, OR.
Photo & text by Daily Capital Journal. (Salem, Or.) 1903-1919, 05 April 1915, Image 3, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 814k Newspaper clipping of the loss of the F-4 (SS-23). US Navy photo, courtesy of Scott Koen & ussnewyork.com.
F-4 169k Newspaper clipping of the loss of the F-4 (SS-23). US Navy photo, courtesy of Scott Koen & ussnewyork.com.
BB-03 Oregon601kRaising the three ton anchor of the battleship Oregon (BB-03) which was thought to be the missing F-4 (SS-23) when first grappled.Image and text provided by University of Oregon, Knight Library; Eugene, OR.
Photo from Medford Mail Tribune. (Medford, Or.) 1909-1989, 08 April 1915, SECOND EDITION, Image 1, via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 808k The cause of the disaster to the F-4 (SS-23) in Hawaiian waters was the collapse of the inner shell of the oil tanks in the bow after the hull was crushed on a coral reef. Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Photo & text by New-York Tribune.(New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, 11 April 1915, Image 6, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 152k Diver "Jack" Adrez going down to search for the F-4 (SS-23), when he had made the record dive of 215 feet. In the foreground on the government dredge brought to the scene for the purpose of raising the submarine, are the crews of the other United States submarines in the Honolulu Harbor. Photo by Central News, courtesy of memory.loc.gov. Partial text from The New York Times, 18 April 1915. Page 2.
F-4 609k DEEP SEA DIVER HUNTS LOST F-4 (SS-23)
George Crilley (In diver's uniform), who was called upon to locate F-4 (lower picture), which sank with twenty-one in Honolulu bay.
Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Photo & text by The Washington Herald. (Washington, D.C.) 1906-1939, 18 April 1915, PICTORIAL SECTION, Image 28, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 671k VALVES LEAKY, ENGINE BAD, BATTERIES IN POOR CONDITION, WROTE COMMANDER OF F-4 (SS-23) JUST BEFORE SUBMARINE WAS LOST.
Leaky valves, engine breakdowns, battery and bad motors were in a letter just received in Los Angeles by Allison S. Ede from his brother, Lieut. Alfred L. Ede, of the submarine F-4, which sank in Honolulu harbor on March 25, in describing the condition of the boat. A veiled premonition of death was also contained in the letter, which was written three days before they met disaster. The accompanying pictures have just been received from Honolulu. At the right is the last picture ever taken of the F-4. The other photograph shows a deep sea diver leaving a small boat to search the sea depths for the submarine. The photo was taken from the dredge California.
Image and text provided by Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, OH.
Photo & text by Perrysburg Journal. (Perrysburg, Wood Co., O. [Ohio]) 186?-1965, 22 April 1915, Image 6, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 763k ALL HIS COMRADES LOST
James M. Hoggett, electrician, only survivor of the crew of the American submarine F-4 (SS-23). He was on shore leave when the vessel started on her fatal trip at Honolulu.
Image and text provided by University of Nebraska-Lincoln Libraries, Lincoln, NE.
Photo & text by Dakota County Herald. (Dakota City, Neb.) 1891-1965, 29 April 1915, Image 3, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 744k F-4 (SS-23) Divers Set World's Record. Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Photo & text by The Washington Herald. (Washington, D.C.) 1906-1939, 02 May 1915, PICTORIAL SECTION, Image 31, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 957k How Pretty Society Girl Originated F-4 (SS-23) Benefit Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Photo & text by The Washington Times. (Washington [D.C.] 1902-1939, 16 May 1919, FINAL EDITION, Image 15, via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 388k Diver in water for 5 hours seeking submarine F-4 (SS-23). Image provided by: Penn State University Libraries; University Park, PA.
Photo & text by The Evening Public Ledger. (Philadelphia [Pa.]) 1914-1942, 1 June 1915, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 141k Naval Constructor Furer developed this method for recovery of the F-4 (SS-23) from the ocean floor off Honolulu. Six large pontoons were constructed at Mare Island for this project and freighted to Hawaii on the deck of the armored cruiser Maryland (ACR-8).Photo & text courtesy of Beneath the Surface: World War I Submarines Built in Seattle and Vancouver by Bill Lightfoot.
F-4 942k SUBMARINE RAISED AFTER FIVE MONTHS ON OCEAN BOTTOM Image and text provided by Library of Congress, Washington, DC.
Photo & text by New-York Tribune.(New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, 31 August 1915, Image 3, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 829k SEARCHERS IN HULL OF F-4 (SS-23) FIND BODIES; ONE SOON IDENTIFIED
Gaping Hole In Side of Submarine Shown as Battered Vessel Lies on Drydock
Image and text provided by University of Hawaii at Manoa; Honolulu, HI.
Photo & text by Honolulu Star-Bulletin. (Honolulu [Oahu, Hawaii) 1912-current, 31 August 1915, 2:30 Edition, Image 1, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 102k Salvage of F-4 (SS-23). Valve manifold and hose leads to submerged pontoons, on board a salvage vessel off Honolulu, circa 29 August 1915. Halftone photograph, copied from "Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers", Volume 24, 1916, Figure 11. The tug is probably Navajo. US Navy photo # NH 43499, from the collections of the US Naval Historical Center.
F-4 104k Salvage of F-4 (SS-23), April-August 1915. Valve manifold and hose leads to submerged pontoons, on board a salvage vessel off Honolulu, Hawaii, probably in August 1915. This equipment was devised by Naval Constructor Julius A. Furer. Halftone photograph, copied from "Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers", Volume 24, 1916, Figure 11. The tug in the left distance is probably Navajo. US Navy photo # NH 43497, from the collections of the US Naval Historical Center.
F-4 70k Salvage of F-4 (SS-23), April-August 1915. Bow salvage pontoons emerging from the depths, off Honolulu, Hawaii, circa 29 August 1915, during the final lifting of the sunken submarine. The salvage equipment was devised by Naval Constructor Julius A. Furer. Halftone photograph, copied from "Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers", Volume 24, 1916, Figure 12. US Navy photo # NH 43498, from the collections of the US Naval Historical Center.
F-4 88k This edited photo illustrates how the F-4 (SS-23) was moved from deep water into the dry dock after being raised from a record setting depth of 320 feet, a salvage record that held for 54 years.Photo & text courtesy of Beneath the Surface: World War I Submarines Built in Seattle and Vancouver by Bill Lightfoot. Photo from Kerrick, Military & Naval America.
F-4 86k Salvage of F-4 (SS-23), circa 29 August 1915. Salvage pontoons on the surface, off Honolulu, after the final lifting of the sunken submarine in preparation for towing her into Honolulu harbor. Note wooden protective sheathing around the pontoons. Salvage equipment was devised by Naval Constructor Julius A. Furer. The tug is probably Navajo.
US Navy photo # NH 74732, from the collections of the US Naval Historical Center. Photo courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1972.
F-4 41k Pontoons used to raise the F-4 (SS-23).
Photo courtesy of Jack Treutle.
F-4 31k Harbor scene as the pontoons used to raise the F-4 (SS-23) pass by.
Photo courtesy of Jack Treutle.
F-4 248k The salvaged F-4 (SS-23) sits in a floating dry dock in Pearl Harbor in August 1915.
Note: Pontoons beside her were constructed at Mare Island Navy Yard.
US Navy photo courtesy of Darryl L. Baker.
F-4 729k The ripped F-4 (SS-23) lies in dry dock next to the pontoons use to raise her.
USN photo courtesy of flickr.com via Stephen Gower.
F-4 178k Naval personnel examine the large implosion hole in F-4's (SS-23) port side, in drydock at Honolulu, circa late August or early September 1915. She had been raised from over 300 feet of water and towed into port. This view was taken from off the port bow, showing the submarine's port side diving plane in the center. She is upside down, rolled to starboard approximately 120 degrees from the vertical.Text courtesy of photo # NH 74734, from the collections of the US Naval Historical Center.
US Navy photo, courtesy of Scott Koen & ussnewyork.com.
F-4 98k F-4 (SS-23), in drydock at Honolulu, 1 September 1915, after she had been raised from over 300 feet of water and towed into port. Note the large implosion hole in her port side, and the salvage pontoons used to support her during the final lift. This view shows F-4's port bow. She is upside down, rolled to starboard approximately 120 degrees from the vertical. Photographed by Kodagraph, Honolulu.
US Navy photo # NH 74733, from the collections of the US Naval Historical Center. Courtesy of Donald M. McPherson, 1972.
F-4 2.34k FIRST VIEW OF THE F-4 (SS-23) AFTER BEING RAISED FROM HONOLULU HARBOR.
The ill-fated U. S. submarine which sank while making an under water trip through Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, and which sank to the bottom with her crew of 21 men, is seen here in drydock after being raised from the sea. The pontoons which were used in the raising are seen on either side of the vessel. The submarine is lying on her port side and the big hole forward, through which several of the bodies floated out to sea, is plainly seen.
Image and text provided by Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records; Phoenix, AZ & State Historical Society of North Dakota.
Photo from Weekly Journal-Miner (Prescott, Ariz.) 1908-1929, 15 September 1915, Image 1 & Bismarck Daily Tribune. (Bismarck, Dakota [N.D.]) 1881-1916, 18 September 1915, Image 6, via chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 121k F-4 (SS-23) Victims Given Military Funeral.
Remains of the men who perished in the U. S. submarine F-4 in Honolulu harbor last spring when the diver settled on the bottom in 300 feet of water, never to rise until recovered by apparatus recently. The bodies, many of which could not be identified, were borne to Sun Francisco on the Supply, and from there sent to their final resting places.
Image and text provided by Washington State Library; Olympia, WA.
Photo & text by The Tacoma Times.(Tacoma, Wash.) 1903-1949, 29 September 1915, Image 5, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 1.15k FUNERAL OF SUBMARINE F-4 (SS-23) VICTIMS.
Funeral procession of the mourners of the crew of the American submarine F-4 who perished when the vessel sank in Honolulu harbor, on its way to Arlington National cemetery at Washington.
Image and text provided by Louisiana State University; Baton Rouge, LA.
Photo & text by The Madison Journal.(Tallulah, Madison Parish, La.) 1888-current, 23 October 1915, Image 3, courtesy of chroniclingamerica.loc.gov.
F-4 23k Alfred Louis Ede, Lieutenant, Junior Grade (Commanding Officer) of the F-4 (SS-23) at the time of her loss. US Navy photo courtesy of oneternalpatrol.com.
F-4 43k Commemorative photo in memory of the F-4 (SS-23). Photo courtesy of Tom Kermen.
F-4 376k While in the Inter-Island Company drydock,F-4 (SS-23) was inspected to determine the cause of her loss, and the bodies of her crew were removed for military burial. Anything useful, including her engines, were stripped from the boat. In September 1915 she was refloated from the dock with the same pontoons and towed into Pearl Harbor a few miles down the coast. There she was deliberately beached on the then unused eastern shore of Magazine Loch and pushed up on the sand. She sat in this position, rotting away in the sun until approximately 1930, when she was pushed off the bank and back into the water only about 100 feet from her previous position. This cleared that stretch of land for the construction of the Sierra pier and other new facilities for the growing submarine base. In 1940 plans were afoot to expand Sierra pier northwards and it was found that the hulk of the F-4 was in the way. A trench was dredged alongside the wreck and she was rolled into it, thus clearing the way for the pier construction and eliminating her as a collision threat. A 1999 magnetometer survey of the waters near pier Sierra 14 detected a massive object, approximately 80 feet from the pier and buried under at least 20 feet of sediment. This is the F-4, resting in her grave. She is still there to this day.
Portion of photo dated 27 November 1923 showing the remains of the submarine F-4 (added white arrow) beached on the shore of Magazine Loch. View facing southeast. NARA II, Still Photo section, # 71-CA-157H-13.
Photo & text courtesy of Dave Johnston (USNR).
Memorial plaque91kMemorial plaque at Independence Seaport Museum, Philadelphia PA, July 2006 for the crews of United States submarines lost during peace time accidents:
F-1 (SS-20), F-4 (SS-23), G-2 (SS-27), H-1 (SS-28), O-5 (SS-66), O-9 (SS-70), S-4 (SS-109), S-51 (SS-162), Squalus (SS-192), Scorpion (SSN-589) & Thresher (SSN-593).
Photo courtesy of Wendell Royce McLaughlin Jr.
F-4 52k Commemorative group photo of the crew of the F-4 (SS-23).

In Memorium:


In the Second Book of Shmuel (Samuel), 22nd chapter, 5th through the 20th verses, translated from the original in Hebrew and published by the Koren Publishers of Jerusalem, Israel, 1982, can perhaps aptly describe the fate of the crew and all other U.S. submariners who died defending their county:

"When the waves of death compassed me / the floods of ungodly men made me afraid; / the bonds of She'ol encircled me; / the snares of death took me by surprise; / in my distress I called upon the Lord, / and cried to my G-D: / and he heard my voice out of his temple, / and my cry entered into his ears. / Then the earth shook and trembled; /the foundations of heaven moved / and shook because of his anger /...the heavy mass of waters, and thick clouds of the skies /... And the channels of the sea appeared, / the foundations of the world were laid bare, / at the rebuking of the Lord, at the blast at the breath of his nostrils. / He sent from above, he took me; / he drew me out of many waters; / he delivered me from my strong enemy, and from those who hated me; for they were too strong for me. / They surprised me in the day of my calamity: / but the Lord was my stay / He brought me forth also into a large place: / he delivered me because he delighted in me./"
Courtesy of oneternalpatrol.com.

View the Skate / F-4 (SS-23)
DANFS history entry located on the Haze Gray & Underway Web Site.
Crew Contact And Reunion Information
Not Applicable to this Vessel
Additional Resources and Web Sites of Interest
On Eternal Patrol
ComSubForPac - USS F-4 (SS-23) 25 March 1915, 21 Drowned
USS F-4 Headstone Dedication Ceremony
PigBoats.COM TM, a Historic Look at Submarines

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