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NavSource Online: Submarine Photo Archive


Patch on left was a photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum home of the Cobia (SS-245).
Other patches courtesy of Mike Smolinski. Patch on right courtesy of BMCS Don McGrogan, USN (ret.)

Hardhead (SS-365)

Radio Call Sign: November - Kilo - Hotel - Yankee

Balao Class Submarine: Laid down, 7 July 1943, at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.; Launched, 12 December 1943; Commissioned USS Hardhead (SS-365), 18 April 1944;
Upon completion of sea trials on Lake Michigan and acceptance, she entered a floating dry dock and was towed down to Algiers, LA and re-assembled. After transiting the Panama Canal, Hardhead reported for duty at Pearl harbor on 7 July 1944. Completing six combat patrols during the war, she was decommissioned on 10 May 1946 and laid up in the Pacific Reserve Fleet at Mare Island, Vallejo, CA.
On 6 February 1952, Hardhead was re-commissioned (in reserve) and sailed for New London, CT for a GUPPY IIA conversion, which included a streamlined sail; a GUPPY bow and snorkel equipment, among other modifications. An in-service re-commissioning was conducted on 24 March 1953 and she joined the Atlantic Fleet. Operating off the east coast of the U.S. and the Caribbean and Mediterranean Seas until July 1958, she joined a Submarine Development Group and engaged in the evaluation of sonar and antisubmarine weapons.
In addition to her research role, Hardhead also was one of "Direct Support" platforms utilized by the Naval Security Group in supporting U. S. Sixth Fleet operations during the 1960s. On 26 July 1972, she was struck from the U. S. Naval Vessel Register (NVR)
In ceremonies at New London, Groton, CT the same day, she de-commissioned; transferred to the Hellenic Republic of Greece and was re-named after Captain Dimitrios Papanikolis, who sank a 74-gun flagship of the Ottoman Fleet on 27 May 1821. HS Papanikolis (S-114) served in the Hellenic Submarine Forces until decommissioning on 31 December 1992.
Hardhead/Papanikolis served both the United States and Hellenic Navies for almost 50 years from the date her keel was first laid down. Final fate unknown. Hardhead earned 6 battle stars for all of her patrols during WWII.
Researched by CTRC Donald J. Wagner, USN (Ret.) for NavSource.

Specifications: Displacement, Surfaced: 1,526 t., Submerged: 2,424 t.; Length 311' 9"; Beam 27' 3"; Draft 15' 3"; Speed, Surfaced 20.25 kts, Submerged 8.75 kts; Cruising Range, 11,000 miles surfaced at 10kts; Submerged Endurance, 48 hours at 2kts; Operating Depth, 400 ft; Complement 6 Officers 54 Enlisted; Armament, ten 21" torpedo tubes, six forward, four aft, 24 torpedoes, one 5"/25 deck gun, one 40mm, one 20mm, two .50 cal. machine guns; Patrol Endurance 75 days; Propulsion, diesel-electric reduction gear with four General Motors main generator diesel engines, 5,400 hp, Fuel Capacity, 116,000 gals., four General Electric main motors with 2,740 hp, two 126-cell main storage batteries, two propellers.
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Hardhead180kHardhead (SS-365), starts her slide into the waters of the Manitowoc River after being side launched at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 12 December 1943.
Editors Note: There are over 200 images submitted on these pages covering the following submarines that were constructed at the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co, Manitowoc, WI,: SS-265 through SS-274, and SS-361 through SS-380.
None of them would have seen the light of day if it were not for the efforts of Curator, Asst. Director, Bill Thiesen of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and Larry Bohn, who sent them to NavSource for publication.
A special debt of gratitude is owed to these two men and the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245) for allowing these photographs to be seen by the lovers of naval history worldwide.
Manitowoc55k Watercolor print by the artist Tom Denton of the side launching of a Manitowoc built boat. Courtesy of submarineart.com
Hardhead365k1,500 tons of Hardhead (SS-365) makes an impression during her launching at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 12 December 1943.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., courtesy of Scott Koen & ussnewyork.com.
Hardhead52kHardhead (SS-365), shortly after being side launched at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 12 December 1943.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Hardhead124kHardhead (SS-365), on sea trials in Lake Michigan, December 1943. Note the horse shoe emblazoned on the jackets of the crew members. Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Hardhead112kHardhead (SS-365), on sea trials in Lake Michigan, December 1943.
Having a horse-shoe for luck proved invaluable for identifying the photo. Note the horse shoe emblazoned on the jackets of the crew members whose backs are turned to the camera.
Photo courtesy of Edward J. Doerflein, submitted by Carol Doerflein. Photo i.d. courtesy of John Hart, Darryl Baker & David Johnston.
Hardhead30kHardhead (SS-365), on sea trials, bow view, in Lake Michigan, December 1943.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Hardhead294kA strong breeze blows Old Glory on the bridge of the Hardhead (SS-365), on sea trials on Lake Michigan, April 1944.USN photo courtesy of ussubvetsofwwii.org
Hardhead102k Port side view of the Hardhead (SS-365) while on sea trials on Lake Michigan, April 1944.USN photo courtesy of ussubvetsofwwii.org.
Hardhead46kHardhead (SS-365), Ship's WW II battle insignia, 1944.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Harry Berns485kPhoto of Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
The photo of the Golet (SS-361) encased in snow appears on the wall above him on the upper right.
His obituary appears here.
Photo courtesy of Susan Menk, Archives Assistant, Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Dee Anna Grimsrud,Reference Archivist, Wisconsin Historical Society, Steve Khail, CBC, Director of Investor Relations & Corporate Communications, The Manitowoc Company, Inc. & William Young.
Who Am I?440k Text accompanying this photo reads "Enlisted men repair and check instruments aboard a submarine just returned to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. May 1945."
Note: Many of the captions of Bristol's photography are lacking in details and some have the wrong dates, places and locations.
The "23" boat in question in this photo is definitely NOT the S-23 (SS-128). It is beyond a doubt a Salmon or Gato/Balao class fleet boat, and I would lean toward a Balao. The date of the photo is probably early to mid 1944.
The boat in question has the characteristically fat, twin periscope shears and long, wide flat "cigarette" deck of a Balao. Directly above the head of the sailor who is working at the base of the aft scope is a radar mast. The sailor behind him is standing at and looking through the aft Target Bearing Transmitter (TBT). Barely visible on the far left of the photo is what I believe to be part of a 20 mm gun mount.
None of these features were ever present on any of the S-boats, even the later 40 series that were heavily modified (i.e. S-45 (SS-156) ) towards the end of the war. The whole conning tower fairwater on the boat in question is simply too large for a S-boat.
As for the "23" on the fairwater, I have seen wartime photos of fleet boats displaying mysterious one and two digit numbers that do not correspond to their hull number (see the Guardfish (SS-217) and Peto (SS-265) pages for examples). Despite a lot of research, I have not turned up an official explanation for these strange numbers. One source said that they were squadron or flotilla identifiers, but I can't back this up officially. It is possible that they were temporary numbers assigned while the boats were in home waters, maybe to cut down on friendly fire incidents. Strangely enough, these numbers also seemed to have been used briefly during WWI, as I have seen them on D, E, F, G, and H-class boats.
It is also entirely possible that these numbers are part of an official disinformation program designed to obscure the identities of the boats while allowing a wide distribution of photos to an information hungry wartime public. That would also account for the information inaccuracies attributed to otherwise highly thought of photographers.
Riveted construction on the conning tower fairwaters of the fleet boats was far more common than I previously thought. It seems that the fairwater plating was riveted to the supporting structure underneath during construction on virtually all of the fleet boats, no matter who built it. This was possible due to the fact that the fairwater was non-watertight and merely provided for a smooth flow of water around the conning tower and lower periscope shears.
Riveting was a long practiced and well known construction method, while welding was still relatively new and there was a fairly low number of skilled and experienced welders, and they had to be parceled out carefully depending on priority. All of the pressure resisting elements such as the conning tower and the main pressure hull were welded. The last fleet boat to have a riveted pressure hull was the Pompano (SS-181) in 1937. These original riveted fairwaters were retained until the end of the war, unless the boat had major rework of the fairwater performed (like most of the Gato's), or if the boat suffered battle damage. The rework jobs seemed to have been mostly welded.
I would lay money on it being a Manitowoc built Balao class and I will stick with the early to mid 1944 date.
National Archives Record Administration (NARA) photo # 080-G-468179 & HD-SN-99-02504 by Lt. Comdr. Horace Bristol, from the Department of Defense Still Media Collection, courtesy of dodmedia.osd.mil.
Partial text courtesy of Jason McDonald, President & Executive Producer MFA Productions LLC.
mfaproductions.com
worldwar2database.com
ninesisters.com
dayofthekamikaze.com
Majority of text and photo i.d. courtesy of Dave Johnston (USNR).
Hardhead175kHardhead (SS-365) at Subic-Bay-August, 1945.USN photo courtesy of John Hummel.
Mare Island Reserve Fleet137kReserve fleet at Mare Island, circa January 1946. There are 52 submarines and 4 Sub Tenders in this photo. This photo is a Berthing list identifying the ships in the picture. Photo commemorating 50 years, U. S. Submarine Veterans of WW II 1996 calendar, courtesy of Darryl L. Baker.
Mare Island Reserve Fleet453kPhoto of the Reserve fleet at Mare Island, circa January 1946. There are 52 submarines and 4 Sub Tenders in this photo. Whether coincidental or on purpose, the number of boats in the photo is the same as that which were lost in WW II.
From back to front and left to right, first group of 12 boats:
Sandlance (SS-381)
Tunny (SS-282)
Aspro (SS-309)
Lionfish (SS-298)
Guvania (SS-362)
Sunfish (SS-281)
Macabi (SS-375)
Gurnard (SS-254)
Pampanito (SS-383)
Mingo (SS-261)
Guitarro (SS-363)
Bashaw (SS-241)
From back to front and left to right, second group of 12 boats:
Sealion (SS-315)
Hammerhead (SS-364)
Bream (SS-243)
Seahorse (SS-304)
Tinosa (SS-283)
Pintado (SS-387)
Mapiro (SS-376)
Pipefish (SS-388)
Moray (SS-300)
Batfish (SS-310)
Hackleback (SS-295)
Bluegill (SS-242)
From back to front and left to right, third group of 12 boats:
Hawkbill (SS-366)
Menhaden (SS-377)
Perch (SS-313)
Loggerhead (SS-374)
Barbero (SS-317)
Baya (SS-318)
Hardhead (SS-365)
Spadefish (SS-411)
Springer (SS-414)
Devilfish (SS-292)
Kraken (SS-370)
Dragonet (SS-293)
From back to front and left to right, fourth group of 12 boats:
Lamprey (SS-372)
Piranha (SS-389)
Manta (SS-299)
Pargo (SS-264)
Rancador (SS-301)
Archerfish (SS-311)
Mero (SS-378)
Sawfish (SS-276)
Spot (SS-413)
Lizardfish (SS-373)
Jallao (SS-368)
Icefish (SS-367)
From back to front and left to right, last group of 4 boats:
Steelhead (SS-280)
Puffer (SS-268)
Stickleback (SS-415)
Trepang (SS-412)
From back to front, Submarine Tenders group of 4 ships:
Pelias (AS-14)
Aegir (AS-23)
Euryale (AS-22)
Griffin (AS-13)
Photo commemorating 50 years, U. S. Submarine Veterans of WW II 1996 calendar, courtesy of Darryl L. Baker.
Mare Island52kBarbero (SS-317) and Hardhead (SS-365) and nestled between them, (deduced from the larger photo), is Spadefish (SS-411). The other boats are unknown at this time. Date on photo is 3 May, 1946 at Mare Island Shipyard, Ca.
Photo courtesy of Ric Hedman.
Hardhead147kPage 1 of 3 of Welcome Aboard the Hardhead (SS-365), citca mid 1950's.Courtesy of Tim Donahue via Mike Keating.
Hardhead147kPage 2 of 3 of Welcome Aboard the Hardhead (SS-365), citca mid 1950's. History of the boat.Courtesy of Tim Donahue via Mike Keating.
Hardhead128kPage 3 of 3 of Welcome Aboard the Hardhead (SS-365), citca mid 1950's. History of the boat.Courtesy of Tim Donahue via Mike Keating.
MINSY Recommissioning2.10kMultiple submarine re-commissioning at Mare Island on 6 February 1952. Guitarro (SS-363) is submarine to the left, outboard of her is Hammerhead (SS-364), and Hardhead (SS-365).
USN photo # 11787-2-52, courtesy of Darryl Baker via Vallejo Naval and Historical Museum.
Carbonero213k Forward plan view looking aft of Carbonero (AGSS-337) at Mare Island on 18 February 1952. She is outboard of Diodon (SS-349) and Guitarro (SS-363), Hardhead (SS-365) and Juneau (CLAA-119) are aft. Note Loon launcher on the after deck.
USN photo # 12024-2-52, courtesy of Darryl L. Baker.
New London 210k Fulton (AS-11) at the state pier New London, CT in March 1953. Submarines present include Entemedor (SS-340), Halfbeak (SS-352), Angler (SS-240),Razorback (SS-394), Tusk (SS-426), and Hardhead (SS-365). SS P&T Leader is across the pier. US Naval Historical Center photo # NH-905254 courtesy of aimm.museum.(Arkansas Inland Maritime Museum at North Little Rock). Courtesy of CAPT Joseph A. Enright, USN (ret).
Hardhead83k Portside view of the Hardhead (SS-365) after Guppy conversion, circa post May 1953.USN photo courtesy of ussubvetsofwwii.org.
Steele84kVADM. George Peabody Steele was the commanding officer of the Hardhead (SS-365) from 12 January 1955 to 13 January 1957.Photograph from the Seadragon (SSN-584) website & submitted by Bill Gonyo.
Hardhead385kStern view: Outboard Hardhead (SS-365) & inboard Cutlass (SS-478) dockside in Genoa, Italy, 1 October 1956. Courtesy of Carlo Martinelli.
Hardhead518kInboard Cutlass (SS-478) & Hardhead (SS-365) outboard, dockside in Genoa, Italy, 1 October 1956.
Both boats sailed for the Mediterranean 7 September 1956 to strengthen the 6th Fleet during the Suez crisis.
Courtesy of Carlo Martinelli. Partial text courtesy of DANFS.
Hardhead226kHardhead (SS-365) sometime late 1950's early 60's.Photo courtesy of John Hummel.
Photo added 12/01/12.
Hardhead162kHardhead (SS-365), head on view off the Phila. Navy Yard, 28 May 1964.Courtesy of John Hummel.
Hardhead149kHardhead (SS-365), stern starboard quarter view off the Phila. Navy Yard, 28 May 1964.Courtesy of John Hummel.
Hardhead & Irex70k Stern view of the Hardhead (SS-365) with Irex (SS-482) inboard, circa 1964.USN photo courtesy of ussubvetsofwwii.org.
Hardhead & Irex185k Starboard view of the Hardhead (SS-365), circa 1966.USN photo courtesy of ussubvetsofwwii.org.
Hardhead175kHardhead (SS-365) with torpedo recovery.USN photo courtesy of John Hummel.
Flasher75k Page 6 of the Flasher's (SSN-613) Inactivation Ceremony Program on 18 June 1991.
She is pictured here during her commissioning on 22 July 1966. Among the submarines in the background is the Hardhead (SS-365).
Courtesy of Robert M. Cieri.
Hardhead85kHardhead (SS-365) dockside in 1971.Courtesy of John Hummel.
Papanikolis (S-114)
Papanikolis105k Port side view of the Hardhead (SS-365), as the Greek Papanikolis (S-114) circa 1972.Greek navy photo courtesy of Tony Vrailas.
Hardhead21k Commemorative postal cover of the Hardhead (SS-365) with the boat's patch in April 1972.Courtesy of Jack Treutle.

View the Hardhead (SS-365)
DANFS history entry located on the Haze Gray & Underway Web Site.
Crew Contact And Reunion Information
U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation
Fleet Reserve Association

Additional Resources and Web Sites of Interest
Ep-21 (1) - Victory At Sea ~ Full Fathom Five - HQ
Manitowoc Built Submarines

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