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NavSource Online: Submarine Photo Archive


Patch on left contributed by Mike Smolinski, middle by Francisco Javier Santos Vazquez, on right by Ray Young

Kraken (SS-370)

Radio Call Sign: November - Juliet - Uniform - Yankee

Balao Class Submarine: Laid down, 13 December 1943, at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.; Launched, 30 April 1944; Commissioned USS Kraken (SS-370), 8 September 1944; Decommissioned, 4 May 1946; Laid up in the Pacific Reserve Fleet; Reactivated for Fleet Snorkel conversion at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard in 1959; Transferred to Spain, 24 October 1959, renamed Almirante García de los Reyes (E-1); Redesignated (S-31), 15 June 1961, under the new, NATO-style numbering system adopted by the Spanish Navy. Almirante Garcia de los Reyes was the only Spanish submarine in the 1960s, and was nicknamed "treinta y único" ("thirty-only one") and became almost legendary. Decommissioned, 16 September 1974; Sold to Spain and struck from the US Naval Register, 1 November 1974; She was to have been cannibalized, but had to be overhauled and recommissioned, 1 September 1975, to replace Narciso Monturiol (S-33), ex-USS Picuda (SS-382), which had suffered a severe engine failure the previous spring and had to be stricken; Finally decommissioned in April 1981; Struck from the Spanish Navy list,1 April 1982; Final Disposition, scrapped. Kraken received one battle star for World War II service.

Specifications: Displacement, Surfaced: 1,526 t., Submerged: 2,424 t.; Length 311' 9"; Beam 27' 3"; Draft 15' 3"; Speed, Surfaced 20.25 kts, Submerged 8.75 kts; Cruising Range, 11,000 miles surfaced at 10kts; Submerged Endurance, 48 hours at 2kts; Operating Depth, 400 ft; Complement 6 Officers, 60 Enlisted; Armament, ten 21" torpedo tubes, six forward, four aft, 24 torpedoes; one 5"/25 deck gun, one 40mm gun, one 20mm gun; Patrol Endurance 75 days; Propulsion, diesel-electric reduction gear with four General Motors main generator engines, 5,400hp, Fuel Capacity 118,000 gals., four General Electric main motors with 2,740hp, two 126-cell main storage batteries, two propellers.
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Kraken 67k Commemorative post cover issued on the Kraken's (SS-370) keel laying, 13 December 1943, at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Note that the cancellation date is the 14th of December.
Photo courtesy of Paul Petosky.
Kraken271k Insignia of the Kraken (SS-370) designed for the submarine by Ray Young, circa 1944.
Photo by Ray Young, courtesy of his son, William Young.
Kraken287kPort bow view of the Kraken (SS-370) on the launching platform, with bunting and signal flags waving in the breeze, at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 30 April 1944.
Editors Note: There are over 200 images submitted on these pages covering the following submarines that were constructed at the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co, Manitowoc, WI,: SS-265 through SS-274, and SS-361 through SS-380.
None of them would have seen the light of day if it were not for the efforts of Curator, Asst. Director, Bill Thiesen of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, and Larry Bohn, who sent them to NavSource for publication.
A special debt of gratitude is owed to these two men and the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245) for allowing these photographs to be seen by the lovers of naval history worldwide.
Kraken101k Kraken (SS-370) starts to tip her launching timbers on her way into the waters of the Manitowoc River at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 30 April 1944.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Kraken 59k Commemorative post cover issued on the Kraken's (SS-370) commissioning, 8 September 1944 at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI. Photo courtesy of Paul Petosky.
Manitowoc55k Watercolor print by the artist Tom Denton of the side launching of a Manitowoc built boat. Courtesy of submarineart.com
Kraken42kKraken (SS-370) hits the water with a resounding splash at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 30 April 1944.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Kraken87kKraken (SS-370) gets help from tugs on the Manitowoc River at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 30 April 1944.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Kraken91kKraken (SS-370) starts to get underway on the Manitowoc River at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 30 April 1944.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Kraken15kCommemorative postal cover on the occasion of Kraken's (SS-370) launching at Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI., 30 April 1944.Courtesy of Jack Treutle.
Kraken52kKraken (SS-370) starboard view underway during sea trials on Lake Michigan, May 1944.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Kraken190kKraken (SS-370) starboard view underway during sea trials on Lake Michigan, May 1944.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Lagarto46kPort quarter view of the Kraken (SS-370) underway, probably in Lake Michigan during trials, May 1944.Photo i.d.courtesy of Susan Menk, Archives Assistant, Wisconsin Maritime Museum.
Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Kraken71k Forward 40 mm gun mount of the Kraken (SS-370) and conning tower view underway during sea trials on Lake Michigan, May 1944.Courtesy of ussubvetsofwwii.org.
Kraken70kKraken (SS-370) bow view underway during sea trials on Lake Michigan, May 1944.Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
379 & 380129kThe following two photos were taken 8 September 1944, on the day Kraken (SS-370) was commissioned. The big cylindrical sections are clearly marked 379 which makes them part of the Needlefish (SS-379). The other parts are either for the Needlefish or the Nerka (SS-380) which would be 380. The contracts for both were canceled 7/29/44. Courtesy of Bob Peppard & Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
379 & 380110kThe big cylindrical sections are clearly marked 379 which makes them part of the Needlefish (SS-379). The other parts are either for the Needlefish or the Nerka (SS-380) which would be 380. The contracts for both were canceled 7/29/44.Courtesy of Bob Peppard & Photo by Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
Submitted by Larry Bohn, courtesy of the Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, home of the Cobia (SS-245)
Harry Berns485kPhoto of Harry Berns, Official photographer of the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc, WI.
The photo of the Golet (SS-361) encased in snow appears on the wall above him on the upper right.
His obituary appears here.
Photo courtesy of Susan Menk, Archives Assistant, Wisconsin Maritime Museum, Dee Anna Grimsrud,Reference Archivist, Wisconsin Historical Society, Steve Khail, CBC, Director of Investor Relations & Corporate Communications, The Manitowoc Company, Inc. & William Young.
Who Am I?440k Text accompanying this photo reads "Enlisted men repair and check instruments aboard a submarine just returned to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. May 1945."
Note: Many of the captions of Bristol's photography are lacking in details and some have the wrong dates, places and locations.
The "23" boat in question in this photo is definitely NOT the S-23 (SS-128). It is beyond a doubt a Salmon or Gato/Balao class fleet boat, and I would lean toward a Balao. The date of the photo is probably early to mid 1944.
The boat in question has the characteristicly fat, twin periscope shears and long, wide flat "cigarette" deck of a Balao. Directly above the head of the sailor who is working at the base of the aft scope is a radar mast. The sailor behind him is standing at and looking through the aft Target Bearing Transmitter (TBT). Barely visible on the far left of the photo is what I believe to be part of a 20 mm gun mount.
None of these features were ever present on any of the S-boats, even the later 40 series that were heavily modified (i.e. S-45 (SS-156) ) towards the end of the war. The whole conning tower fairwater on the boat in question is simply too large for a S-boat.
As for the "23" on the fairwater, I have seen wartime photos of fleet boats displaying mysterious one and two digit numbers that do not correspond to their hull number (see the Guardfish (SS-217) and Peto (SS-265) pages for examples). Despite a lot of research, I have not turned up an official explanation for these strange numbers. One source said that they were squadron or flotilla identifiers, but I can't back this up officially. It is possible that they were temporary numbers assigned while the boats were in home waters, maybe to cut down on friendly fire incidents. Strangely enough, these numbers also seemed to have been used briefly during WWI, as I have seen them on D, E, F, G, and H-class boats.
It is also entirely possible that these numbers are part of an official disinformation program designed to obscure the identities of the boats while allowing a wide distribution of photos to an information hungry wartime public. That would also account for the information inaccuracies attributed to otherwise highly thought of photographers.
Riveted construction on the conning tower fairwaters of the fleet boats was far more common than I previously thought. It seems that the fairwater plating was riveted to the supporting structure underneath during construction on virtually all of the fleet boats, no matter who built it. This was possible due to the fact that the fairwater was non-watertight and merely provided for a smooth flow of water around the conning tower and lower periscope shears.
Riveting was a long practiced and well known construction method, while welding was still relatively new and there was a fairly low number of skilled and experienced welders, and they had to be parceled out carefully depending on priority. All of the pressure resisting elements such as the conning tower and the main pressure hull were welded. The last fleet boat to have a riveted pressure hull was the Pompano (SS-181) in 1937. These original riveted fairwaters were retained until the end of the war, unless the boat had major rework of the fairwater performed (like most of the Gato's), or if the boat suffered battle damage. The rework jobs seemed to have been mostly welded.
I would lay money on it being a Manitowoc built Balao class and I will stick with the early to mid 1944 date.
National Archives Record Administration (NARA) photo # 080-G-468179 by Lt. Comdr. Horace Bristol, from the Department of Defense Still Media Collection, and classified as # HD-SN-99-02504, courtesy of dodmedia.osd.mil.
Partial text courtesy of Jason McDonald, President & Executive Producer MFA Productions LLC.
mfaproductions.com
worldwar2database.com
ninesisters.com
dayofthekamikaze.com
Majority of text and photo i.d. courtesy of Dave Johnston (USNR).
Kraken623k Kraken (SS-370) the "Sea Dragon" and WW II sinkings on the conning tower, circa September 1945.U.S. Navy Photograph courtesy of Scott Koen & ussnewyork.com
Kraken237k Kraken (SS-370) the "Sea Dragon" and WW II sinkings on the conning tower, circa September 1945.Courtesy of ussubvetsofwwii.org.
Oakland97kThe Oakland (CL-95) docking in Oakland, California, her name sake city, on 20 October 1945 returning home after World War Two. The three subs in the photo are (from left) - Thresher (SS-200), Kraken (SS-370), and Stickleback (SS-415). Photo i.d. courtesy of Robert Morgan, & Ric Hedman & Dave Johnston (USNR).
Photo courtesy of Mike Brock via Tom Bateman.
Mare Island Reserve Fleet137kReserve fleet at Mare Island, circa January 1946. There are 52 submarines and 4 Sub Tenders in this photo. This photo is a Berthing list identifying the ships in the picture. Photo commemorating 50 years, U. S. Submarine Veterans of WW II 1996 calendar, courtesy of Darryl L. Baker.
Mare Island Reserve Fleet453kPhoto of the Reserve fleet at Mare Island, circa January 1946. There are 52 submarines and 4 Sub Tenders in this photo. Whether coincidental or on purpose, the number of boats in the photo is the same as that which were lost in WW II.
From back to front and left to right, first group of 12 boats:
Sandlance (SS-381)
Tunny (SS-282)
Aspro (SS-309)
Lionfish (SS-298)
Guvania (SS-362)
Sunfish (SS-281)
Macabi (SS-375)
Gurnard (SS-254)
Pampanito (SS-383)
Mingo (SS-261)
Guitarro (SS-363)
Bashaw (SS-241)
From back to front and left to right, second group of 12 boats:
Sealion (SS-315)
Hammerhead (SS-364)
Bream (SS-243)
Seahorse (SS-304)
Tinosa (SS-283)
Pintado (SS-387)
Mapiro (SS-376)
Pipefish (SS-388)
Moray (SS-300)
Batfish (SS-310)
Hackleback (SS-295)
Bluegill (SS-242)
From back to front and left to right, third group of 12 boats:
Hawkbill (SS-366)
Menhaden (SS-377)
Perch (SS-313)
Loggerhead (SS-374)
Barbero (SS-317)
Baya (SS-318)
Hardhead (SS-365)
Spadefish (SS-411)
Springer (SS-414)
Devilfish (SS-292)
Kraken (SS-370)
Dragonet (SS-293)
From back to front and left to right, fourth group of 12 boats:
Lamprey (SS-372)
Piranha (SS-389)
Manta (SS-299)
Pargo (SS-264)
Rancador (SS-301)
Archerfish (SS-311)
Mero (SS-378)
Sawfish (SS-276)
Spot (SS-413)
Lizardfish (SS-373)
Jallao (SS-368)
Icefish (SS-367)
From back to front and left to right, last group of 4 boats:
Steelhead (SS-280)
Puffer (SS-268)
Stickleback (SS-415)
Trepang (SS-412)
From back to front, Submarine Tenders group of 4 ships:
Pelias (AS-14)
Aegir (AS-23)
Euryale (AS-22)
Griffin (AS-13)
Photo commemorating 50 years, U. S. Submarine Veterans of WW II 1996 calendar, courtesy of Darryl Baker
Almirante García de los Reyes (E-1)
Kraken108kKraken (SS-370) photo from the Spanish newspaper ("La Vanguardia Española", 22 October 1972), was taken during the transfer ceremony at Pearl Harbor, HI., on 24 October 1959. ADM Solomons addresses the Spanish crew, mustered on deck and headed by LCDR Reinoso. Submitted by Fabio Peña.
Kraken108kA postcard photo of Almirante Garcia de los Reyes (S-31) taken sometime between 1961 and 1966. It clearly shows the upper hull form of a "fleet snorkel" submarine, with her streamlined sail and raked bow. Kraken was transferred to Spain with a 5"/25 gun abaft the sail, but it was soon removed as it was of very limited value and a maintenance problem.Submitted by Fabio Peña.
Kraken97k Almirante García de los Reyes (E-1), sometime between 24 October 1959 & 15 June 1961. Courtesy of ussubvetsofwwii.org.
Kraken102kAlmirante Garcia de los Reyes (S-31) entering harbour, circa 1960 with a 5"/25 gun abaft the sail.Photo courtesy of Jane's Fighting Ships" 1960-1961 & submitted by Senor A. Aguilera via Robert Hurst.
Kraken118kAlmirante Garcia de los Reyes (E-1) circa 1961. Official Spanish Navy photo courtesy of Jane's Fighting Ships" 1964-1965 & submitted by Robert Hurst
Kraken184k Almirante Garcia de los Reyes (S-31) during the 1960's. Photo courtesy of Chris Howel.
Photo added 02/06/12.

View the Kraken (SS-370)
DANFS history entry located on the Haze Gray & Underway Web Site.
Crew Contact And Reunion Information
U.S. Navy Memorial Foundation
Fleet Reserve Association

Additional Resources and Web Sites of Interest
Ep-21 (1) - Victory At Sea ~ Full Fathom Five - HQ
Manitowoc Built Submarines

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