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William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company facilities, 15 March 1943. Cruisers visible in this photo:Far right - Miami (CL-89) - Furthest along; aft turrets and catapults in place.
Left of Miami is Astoria (CL-90) - she is about a month behind Miami.
Left of Astoria, in the large shipway, is Oklahoma City (CL-91) - a significant portion of hull has been built.
Left of Oklahoma City is Little Rock (CL-92) - Keel was just been laid on 6 March, which is visible under crane structure.
The coaling dock next to the cruisers site is known as grafitti pier" today.
Note that there are also 2 ATF's: Seneca (ATF-91) and Nauset (ATF-89) fitting out on the right side near the graving dock being built which was never used when finished in 1945. It was fully functional, and used in the 50's when Keystone Ship Repair leased the property. Fast forward to 2014 when the last piece of the shipyard was demolished. The 'L' shaped building, across Girard Avenue which was the foundry & Machine Shop was the end.
Note the 8 submarines in various stages of construction to the left of the Little Rock (4 per shipway). They are most likely from bottom right to left & bottom to top:
The shipyard's submarine construction program was not especially successful. Poor management hindered the delivery of the boats. The first delivery was made two years after keel laying, and fitting out was then done by Portsmouth Navy Yard. The best construction time for a submarine was 644 days.
Cramp's submarine construction story was not a happy one for the Navy. Even though they got an early start on their Balaos, they had a lot of difficulty in hiring skilled workers and managers as most of the good ones already had jobs. Quality and timeliness suffered as a result. Cramp used the Government design plans, but used a completely different part numbering and inventory system, making coordination with Portsmouth, Boston, and Mare Island virtually impossible. The Government was forced to step in to straighten the mess out, with some of the boats ultimately being finished by other yards.
|Text courtesy of Tom Bateman, Dave Johnston (USNR), Ron Reeves, & Tracy White.|
USN photo # 80-G-38403 via Tom Bateman courtesy of Tracy White @Researcher @ Large.
Photo added 01/16/18.
|500k||Inverse of the above.||USN photo # 80-G-38404 via Tom Bateman courtesy of Tracy White @ Researcher @ Large.|
Photo added 01/16/18.
|107k||Mrs. J. Bilisoly Hudgins makes an impact on Escolar's (SS-294) bow with a bottle of champagne.||Photo by Harry L. Raynore, courtesy of digital.library.temple.edu.|
|114k||A good view of the prop and rudder area of the Escolar (SS-294). The stern planes are being held in position by temporary supports during this construction photo taken at Cramp Shipbuilding Co., Philadelphia, PA. in April 1943. Metal still needed to be fitted around the torpedo tubes and the lower outer door.||USN photo # 19-N-437637.
Photo and text courtesy of The Floating Drydock, "Fleet Subs of WW II" by Thomas F. Walkowiak.
|851k||Escolar (SS-294), at Cramp Shipbuilding Co., Philadelphia, PA. on the launching blocks moments before she starts her slide down the ways, 18 April 1943.||USN photo courtesy of Claude Hill, whose father, Engineering Officer Lt. Claude J. Hill, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
|728k||Escolar (SS-294) sliding down the ways, 18 April 1943.||USN photo # 80-G77167,courtesy of Scott Koen & ussnewyork.com.|
|1.20k||Escolar (SS-294) down the ways and into the waters of the Delawere River on 18 April 1943.||Photo courtesy of Ric Hedman.|
|148k||Most likely on the Delaware River off Cramp Shipbuilding Co., Philadelphia, PA. 18 April 1943, Escolar (SS-294) has what appears to be a number of civillian technicians on board observing her first movements.||USN photo courtesy of Ronald Norford, whose brother, Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
|136k|| Escolar (SS-294) graduating class at the Submarine Training School, Navy Yard Portsmouth, NH, taken 9 March 1944. The following is a partrial list of the crew:
Sitting L to R: 2-Krause SM 1/c, (Note: Krause had originally served on the Wahoo (SS-238) and had transferred stateside to be with his family) 3-Boesel S 1/c, 4-Killough MM 1/c, 5-Smith, A.R., S 1/c, 6-Norford F 1/c, 7-Newton TM 1/c, 8-Miller EM 1/c, 9-Wallace TM 2/c, 10-Tocharcheck GM 1/c, 11-Hampton QM 1/c, 12-Jones MA 2/c, 16-Cifrodella TM 2/c, 17-Turner EM 3/c, 18-Caldwell TM 1/c.
2nd row L to R: 4-Gancarz EM 2/c, 6-Michaud CTM, 7-Gorecki CCS, 8-Johnson C PHM, 9-Davis CEM, 10-Pennington CMM, 13-Patterson S 2/c, & 13-LaRoe S 2/c.
3rd row L to R: 1-Ennis S 2/c, 4-Slavik F 2/c, 5-Fulton MM 1/c, 7-Smith, B.T. F 2/C, 8-Brouskie EM 1/c, 12-Bonk S 1/c, 13-Parrish TM 3/c, 14-Valentino MM 2/c & 16-Patrou TM 3/c.
4th row L to R: 1-Hahn S 2/c, 4-Wybrow SC 3/c, 5-Bailey EM 1/c, 7-Munsel MoMM 3/c, 8-Cahill MoMM 3/c, 9-Tucker S 1/c, 10-Campbell RM 1/c, 11-Lieder MM 1/c, 14-McConnell S 1/C & 16-Fostair QM 2/c.
|USN photo courtesy of Ronald Norford, whose brother, Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
|117k||Escolar (SS-294) torpedoman Charles Yaworsky, W. TM3 is pictured in the second row, second person on the right hand side behind the torpedo at the Naval Training School at Newport, CT.
||USN photo courtesy of csp.navy.mil.|
|127k||The following 4 photos appear to be an awards ceremony for the officers and crew of the Escolar (SS-294), 3 May 1944, probably in Philadelphia. The following text are comments based on what seems to be happening here, contributed by Dave Johnston (USNR).
Well, in taking a look at the uniform, it is the aviation officer working greens. The officer is an ensign, and has just been awarded what looks like the Silver Star (or possibly the Bronze Star). He also has several other ribbons/medals, and appears to have some sort of warfare badge just below the ribbons (it looks like wings), and possibly another badge above the ribbons. I am normally bad at guessing ages, but this guy looks considerably older than the typical 23 year old naval aviation officer program graduate.
With the above in mind, the immediate question that comes to mind is how did an aviation officer come to be on Escolar's crew? Trying to come up with a likely scenario that fits all of the observed parameters is quite difficult. An older man, an ensign (not much time in the navy), a prestigious combat award, from the aviation branch, assigned to a submarine crew is just not a routine thing, even in the fast paced days of WWII. After pondering on it for a few days, I came up with a couple of scenarios that might explain this, with none of them being rock solid:
He was some sort of liaison officer temporarily assigned to the Escolar for training purposes. He might have been facilitating communications with the aviation forces, or was engaging in some cross type training for familiarization (maybe a airship pilot seeing how subs operate). I remember reading somewhere that this had been done on a few occasions in the Pacific, mostly to coordinate with the carrier forces for lifeguard duty. Obviously since the Escolar hadn't yet conducted a war patrol this probably isn't the case, but it may have been a precursor to this.
He was an aviation officer candidate who completed pilot training, but was medically disqualified from flight for some reason and transferred to submarines. This doesn't explain the Silver Star, though. That can only be obtained in combat. And, in my opinion the most likely scenario:
He was a former enlisted man from the aviation branch who received a commission, and either voluntarily or involuntarily was transferred to submarines once he received his commission. This would explain the "advanced" age with a low rank. The Silver Star may have been earned on a combat mission while an enlisted man and was only just awarded upon his arrival to the Escolar after sub school. As an enlisted man he may have been a crew member on a PBY Catalina or similar. He put in for or received a commission and was approved, only to find out afterward that he was being transferred to subs. I freely admit that these are all long shots, with a hell of a lot of old fashioned informed speculation weighing in. This combination is so unlikely that it really piqued my interest and I would love to know if anyone can fully explain it.
Subsequently, according to the info from the book "The U.S. Navy in World War II" by Mark Henry (Osprey Publishing); Apparently, in the spring of 1943 the navy felt it needed a new uniform that blended in better with the background aboard ship. They also intended that oil and dirt stains be less noticeable, a real problem on whites and khakis. So they introduced a slate grey version of the khakis with black buttons. It was to be worn with a light grey shirt. Overall, it was virtually the same as the aviation greens, just a different color, making the two hard to distinguish in a black and white photo.
The new uniform was authorized in May, 1943 and phased in slowly. Unfortunately for the Navy, it was universally hated by the sailors. Very few officers purchased and wore it, the enlisted version was even rarer and was virtually unknown. Apparently it "just wasn't Navy". It managed to hold on until 1947 when it was officially disestablished.
In addition to the ensign in the award photos (which I still think is a former enlisted man), several of the officers in the later commissioning party photos are wearing the grey uniform. One photo even shows two chiefs wearing the ultra rare enlisted version. Maybe Moke Milligan became one of the few fans of the uniform after seeing it on the ensign and "encouraged" his crew to wear it. Whatever the reason, this makes these photos quite special.
| Photo I.D. & text courtesy of John Hummel, Dave Johnston & Darryl L. Baker.
USN photo courtesy of Ronald Norford, whose brother, Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.
|125k||Awards ceremony for the officers and crew of the Escolar (SS-294), 3 May 1944, probably in Philadelphia.
||USN photo courtesy of Ronald Norford, whose brother, Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
|199k||Awards ceremony for the officers and crew of the Escolar (SS-294), 3 May 1944, probably in Philadelphia.
Cdr. William J. Millican is congratulating the officer receiving the award. The officer on the right margin of the photo is the Engineering Officer, Lt. Claude J. Hill.
|113k||Awards ceremony for the officers and crew of the Escolar (SS-294), 3 May 1944, probably in Philadelphia. |
Cdr. William J. Millican is holding a tablet of paper next to the officer receiving an award.
Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, is the third person on the right, first row.
|Text i.d. courtesy of John Hummel. USN photo courtesy of Ronald Norford, whose brother, Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
|120k||Commissioning party for the crew of the Escolar (SS-294), 19 May 1944, probably in Portsmouth, N.H.
Cdr. William J. Millican is on the extreme left on the first row. Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, is at the top row, right.
|79k||Commissioning party for the officers and crew of the Escolar (SS-294), 19 May 1944, probably in Portsmouth, N.H. Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, is seated in the left hand corner of the photo.
|108k||Commissioning party for the officers and crew of the Escolar (SS-294), 19 May 1944, probably in Portsmouth, N.H.
Cdr. William J. Millican is the 7th person seated against the wall, between the two ladies.
The wife of Engineering Officer, Lt. Claude J. Hill, Mildred Carlisle Herndon Hill, is the blonde in the polkadot ruffled collar dress, 4th from the left.
|USN photo courtesy of Ronald Norford, whose brother, Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, was lost on the Escolar (SS-294). Photo i.d. courtesy of Claude Hill, whose father, Engineering Officer Lt. Claude J. Hill, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
|82k||Commissioning party for the officers and crew of the Escolar (SS-294), 19 May 1944, probably in Portsmouth, N.H.
The Engineering Officer, Lt. Claude J. Hill & his wife, Mildred Carlisle Herndon Hill, (7 months pregnant), is sitting on his right in the right upper corner. Cdr. William J. Millican is sitting immediately in front of them with his legs crossed.
|USN photo courtesy of Claude Hill, whose father, Engineering Officer Lt. Claude J. Hill, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
|51k|| Escolar's (SS-294) Engineering Officer, Lt. Claude J. Hill, 1944.
||USN photo courtesy of Claude Hill, whose father, Engineering Officer Lt. Claude J. Hill, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
|78k||Page 1 of the service record of Escolar's (SS-294) Engineering Officer, Lt. Claude J. Hill, 1945.
|36k||Page 2 of the service record of Escolar's (SS-294) Engineering Officer, Lt. Claude J. Hill, 1945.
|71k||Official USN photo of the Escolar (SS-294), probably off Portsmouth, N.H., possibly around the time of her commissioning, circa June 1944.
|169k||Escolar (SS-294), underway, starboard side view while undergoing her final training for combat at Pearl Harbor, September 1944.|
|169k||Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, , who was lost on the Escolar (SS-294). Enlisting in March 1943, shortly after his 17th birthday. He worked at the Hagerstown Maryland ACME before enlisting in the Navy and completing sub school at New London, CT.|
|320k||Escolar (SS-294) Submarine Challenge Coin.||Photo courtesy of ebay.com.|
|1.03k||Japanese Patrol Boats depth charge American submarine.||Photo courtesy of Arnold Putnam.|
|375k||Millican's Marauders was composed of Escolar (SS-294), Croaker (SS-246) & Perch (SS-313). They set out together to conduct a coordinated patrol, on September 23rd. Croaker's & Perch's log for the dates 15 to 19 October appear here.
19 October 1944: Off Sasebo. At 1600, escort CD-34 detects an unknown submarine 45 degrees to starboard at 3280 yards (3000 m). CD-38 attacks and drops about 30 depth charges. A friendly aircraft collaborates with the kaibokan. The kill is confirmed by a heavy-oil slick and many interior ship fittings found floating on the sea. CD-38's crew paints a submarine "kill" mark on side wall of the bridge.
|Drawing by Takeshi Yuki scanned from "Color Paintings of Japanese Warships" & text courtesy of combinedfleet.com.
PDF translation courtesy of Kiyotaka Asano via Yutaka Iwasaki, Bruce Abele & Brad Pearson.
Photo & PDF via Kiyotaka Asano & Yutaka Iwasaki.
|785k||Summation of Escolar's (SS-294) loss.||PDFs written by Anthony Duda & Yutaka Iwasak.|
|580k||Imperial Japanese Navy Patrol Boat 102 (ex-Stewart, DD-224) at Kure, on 12 March 1945.
She appears here after being recaptured.
She was also part of the screen of the convoy MI-23 that the Tang (SS-306) would met 6 days after the Escolar's (SS-294) sinking and would also be lost.
P 102's action report appears here.
| Photo by Kure Naval Arsenal, Imperial Japanese Navy via Robert Hurst courtesy of Fred Willshaw.
PDF courtesy of Yutaka Iwasaki.
|117k||This painting is offered as a hypothesis and not presented as THE ANSWER for the Escolar's (SS-294) demise.||Drawing courtesy of Ben Kennedy.|
|679k||Google Earth satellite photo of the East China & Yellow Seas, where the Escolar's (SS-294) last approximate position based during post-war debriefings. This position is thought to be the final resting place of the Escolar and her crew.||Photo courtesy of Google Earth via Yutaka Iwasaki.|
|166k||Commemorative photo in honor of the memory of the crew of the Escolar (SS-294).||Photo courtesy of Tom Kermen. Dante's Prayer courtesy of Loreena McKennitt via quinlanroad.com.|
|383k||Commemorative photo in honor of the crew of the Escolar (SS-294).||Photo courtesy of Ron Reeves.|
|117k||Joyce DaSilva, the wife of Jesse DaSilva of the Tang (SS-306), one of the nine survivors of the boat, tosses a flower into a reflecting pool to honor the memory of one of the 52 submarines lost during World War II at the National Submarine Memorial-West on board Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, Calif. On this Veterans Day, the Submarine Veterans of World War II transferred ownership of the memorial to the U.S. Navy.
The following text is from The Coming Fury by Bruce Catton., pg. 478.
"Major Sullivan Ballou of Rhode Island was killed in the battle, and just before it he had wrote to his wife, Sarah, to tell her that he believed he was going to be killed and to express a tremulous faith that could see a gleam of light in the dark:
"But O Sarah! If the dead can come back to this earth and float unseen around those they loved, I shall always be near you in the gladdest days and in the gloomiest nights, always, always, and if there be a soft breeze upon your chest it shall be my breath, as the cool air fans your throbbing temple it shall be my spirit passing by. Sarah, do not mourn me dead; think I am gone and wait, for we shall meet again!"
|Text i.d. courtesy of Marlynn Starring. Photo i.d. courtesy of Chuck Senior, Vice Commander, Los Angeles-Pasadena Base, USSVI.
USN photo # N-1159B-021 by Journalist 2nd Class Brian Brannon, courtesy of news.navy.mil.
|300k||The crew of the Escolar (SS-294) pose for a group shot, probably at the Philadelphia Navy Yard prior to commissioning, circa April 1944, about six months before they were all K.I.A.
Cdr. William J. Millican is on the extreme right on the first row. His XO, LCDR Frank Blaha, I think, is the first officer on the left side. The Engineering Officer, Lt. Claude J. Hill is standing next to Cdr. Millican. Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, is standing in the second row, third from the right.
In the Second Book of Shmuel (Samuel), 22nd chapter, 5th through the 20th verses, translated from the original in Hebrew and published by the Koren Publishers of Jerusalem, Israel, 1982, can perhaps aptly describe the fate of the crew and all other U.S. submariners who died defending their county:
"When the waves of death compassed me / the floods of ungodly men made me afraid; / the bonds of She'ol encircled me; / the snares of death took me by surprise; / in my distress I called upon the Lord, / and cried to my G-D: / and he heard my voice out of his temple, / and my cry entered into his ears. / Then the earth shook and trembled; /the foundations of heaven moved / and shook because of his anger /...the heavy mass of waters, and thick clouds of the skies /... And the channels of the sea appeared, / the foundations of the world were laid bare, / at the rebuking of the Lord, at the blast at the breath of his nostrils. / He sent from above, he took me; / he drew me out of many waters; / he delivered me from my strong enemy, and from those who hated me; for they were too strong for me. / They surprised me in the day of my calamity: / but the Lord was my stay / He brought me forth also into a large place: / he delivered me because he delighted in me./"
|Courtesy of Ronald Norford, whose brother, Robert Nelson Norford, F1/C, USNR, was K.I.A. with the Escolar (SS-294) and her entire crew of 82.|
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